tv [untitled] March 21, 2011 2:00am-2:30am PDT
what kind of tools do you use? you want to go in -- first thing you need to do is always try to get in the easiest way. what do you want to use to force entry? you can use axs, you are use pry bars or jacks, car jacks. you need to do a lift, you don't have any levers, there's some cars parked outside, you go up and ask the owner of the car, is it okay if i use your car jack? because you're not going to break in, are you? there's always cutting and boring. here is that ax. of course striking and hammering. how do you break glass? at the top, good. we're going to say that this is the glass from here on down, so how would you break it? do i just want to take it like this and smash it this way? no. the end of the board, going to use the end of the board, but i'm also going to remember that the glass can hurt me. if i were to hit it like this,
the glass could slide down, cut my hand. so you want to start at the top like he said, hold this down, turn your head away, you start at the top and smash the glass this way down like that. if it does slide down, it's going to go away from you and not towards your hand. real simple. use a long-handled tool, stand to one side, strike up at the top and you want to clean it all out before you go in there. in this part of the lecture we're going to talk about structural damage. we're going to talk about triaging buildings now, believe it or not. we're going to talk about how to look at structural damage and tag these buildings either light, moderate or heavy damage buildings. we're going it talk a little bit about liquefaction, we're going to talk about search and
rescue techniques and actually show you how we do search and rescue. then we're going to talk about lifting heavy objects. we're really talking about rescue here. so signs of possible structural damage, as a nert team, you have to be able to identify buildings. you have to be able, during a disaster, especially an earthquake, walk down the street and be able to look at buildings and understand this building is okay, this building is bad. as you walk down the street. especially if you are going to go into that building. things to look for, horizontal and vertical lines. in this room, most construction works at 90 degree angles. if you look around the room, this beam is a little bit curved. but where the beam meets the wall, it hits at a 90 degree angle. basically makes a vertical and horizontal line. you want to look for these things when you look at a
building. and it's not always obvious . if you look at this building, this one was an example of the racking we talked about. see how these studs are starting to fold on each other? if this whole thing fell over, the studs would be connected to each other. this is an example of the racking. obvious example of racking here; right? if you walk into this building, you are going to say this is heavily damaged. easy. large cracks. again, you want to look around the doors and the foundation. here right at the doors because, remember, the soft structure is the bottom structure. that's going to move the most. then right around the doors are structural members of the house. that's where you are going to find a lot of the damage. this one -- but look at all the doorways again. this building, again, here in the marina. somebody wrote something on there.
if you look really close it says, search. somebody wrote that there because maybe they thought somebody was inside, they went inside. we use a different method now. it's in your book if you did your homework. otherwise i'll show you later in the lecture. paint lines are another indicator of how damaged buildings are. if you want to look at the paint lines on this building, it's kind of hard to tell until you get up close. remember, this building is kind of a grayish tannish color, i guess. when you get a little bit closer, this side of the building should be the same color as this side of the building. what happened was this building moved away from the building next door and that's how far it moved. separation between buildings. you want to look at the separation to see if it's even, is it the same distance at the bottom as at the top, but that's another indicator of how damaged buildings are. this one looks fairly even, but when you get closer you can tell with the racking on the
bottom that this building was pulled away. liquefaction, liquefaction is a term they use when the ground is loose. usually when structures or infrastructure is built on sand or land fill, something that's not solid, what happens is in shaking, during an earthquake, the earth that's very loose, that sand or land fill, acts like water. this is sand, sand and water coming up through a hole. in japan, all these buildings were built on liquefaction. i forget what year this was, but it was one of the bigger earthquakes. 7 story buildings built on liquefaction. the amount of time the earth shook, the earth became liquid and as it became liquid, the building sank into it until it stopped. when it stopped it just fell over. light damage buildings, superficial damage, broken
windows, some plaster that might be cracked but basically a light damage building would be one that has mostly damage to the contents. shelves falling over, windows broken, that type of thing. if you had to go into a light damaged building, you would use these procedures. of course you gather information about a building before you go into it, as much information, who lives there, that type of thing. shut off any utilities needed, locate and triage any injured patients, document and communicate the location of any trapped or missing persons. it could be an invalid. in fact, most of the injuries apld most of the deaths in earthquake, they don't happen with structures falling down, they happen with items falling on you like televisions and bookcases. that's most of the deaths that happen in earthquakes. a moderately damaged building, this would be one that has a greater amount of cracking on the interior. moderately damaged building, you can actually go into.
the procedures you would follow are basically the same. gather information, shut off utilities when you need to, locate and stabilize injured patients and get them out, so evacuate the injured to a safe area. you want to get them out as soon as you can, get out yourself as soon as you can, and document what you found in that building. these are heavily buildings. these are the two buildings that actually collapsed three days after the earthquake. this building was leaning on this building. procedures for heavily damaged buildings, don't go in. but you still will gather information. shut off utilities if it's safe to do it. you report it. we can cordon off the area just to make sure nobody else goes in the area. definitely tell the fire chief or whoever and we can go in there and try to do it safely. when we talk about search and rescue, i really want to make a distinction between searching and rescuing.
searching is really basically looking for people; right? once we find a person we switch modes and go into this rescue mode. when we talk about search and rescue, try not to get it too mixed up because you think dfrpbtly based on what you are doing. if you are searching, you think about certain things and if you are rescuing somebody, you think about other things. the first rule, of course, would be do not become a victim yourself. whenever you do a search, you have to preplan. you have to understand who is doing what. we suggest that you work in two teams of at least two people, so that's at least four people doing a search at the very, very, very least. you want a team on the outside and a team on the inside. proper safety equipment, we talked about equipment. we're only going to give you helmets. we're going to give you vests too. are the vests going to protect you from anything? no. any other equipment you have to
get your own. gloves, if we have any extra we'll give you gloves. knee pads, you need good shoes, you need good clothes that won't rip so things like nails will be harder to rip through your skin. decide on the duties and the tools. who is good at what. if i physically can't do something when we show you how to do search and rescue, don't do it and make sure everybody else knows what you can and cannot do. that's very, very important. know where your emergency exits are and what your signals are. examine the exterior of a house. you want to know who's missing. if anybody is missing, does anybody live in the house? structural damage of the house, again, you want to know what you're walking into. potential hazards, glass, water, anything broken glass. we mentioned some of that earlier. know your exit and entry points, know where the utility shut offs are if you have to turn them off.
you don't have to turn them off all the time, only if you have to. any unique characteristics. does this house have a lot of glass, is it built on a hill side, is it built on stilts? before you enter, you are going to make a marking, make a slash near the front entry so everybody knows that you've gone inside. there's two things that are going to alert people that you have gone inside to do a search. one is a slash and the other is the other team outside. if there's four of you on a team, there should be two of you outside and a slash. when you enter a building, you might need forcible entry. do you smell gas? get out and turn it off, make sure it's safe. call out and listen because you are in there to do a search. you have to yell. hey, nert team, nert volunteers. is anybody here? if you say let's call out, everyone is going to be calling out, hey, nert team.
nobody can listen. hey, let's call out and give it a couple seconds, see if we can hear somebody. not only call out, make sure that you can listen, too. we want you to start your search from the top so if you go into the building, start from the top and then work your way back. we want you to do a left or right handed search pattern, meaning when you enter a room or a building, we want you to find a wall and stay on that wall. we want to have somebody stay on that wall because that wall will show you the way out. mark each individual unit so the x that i was talking about, if you go into a multi-unit apartment building, you with want to do it on each unit. so i go into this apartment, you're going to do a slash, go into the apartment, do your search, when you come out and complete the x. again at the top is the time that you entered. they want you to write the time
that you leave also. so you would cross out the time that you entered and write the time that you leave. when the x is completed, they know the search was completed at that time. where do you put this x where would you write it? would you write it on the door? no, when you put it on the door and you open the door, then it's gone. you want to put it on a wall next to the door. now we're going to talk about rescuing. same thing when you rescue, you want to survey the hazards, you want to survey the area. assess the medical conditions of victims, you have somebody when you're ready, when you find somebody, what are we going to do? do i have enough people to get this person out, do i have the tools i need, do i need to break a door or break a wall open, what would be the escape plan just in case. remember, these are just in case questions again. what if there's an aftershock, what's my quickest way out? and develop a rescue plan. it's hard to develop a rescue plan when you are doing a
search because you don't know where the victim is going to be. don't push your physical or mental limits. if you need help, go get it. remember, you have a team outside that matches your team inside. you can send them and say, hey, go for more help. tell them we need more help. we found a victim and we can't do it ourselves. go back to our nert staging area, go back, tell the battalion chief, get whatever you need. eliminate your hazards first, make sure you can work safely, remove the victim quickly but bottom line, safely. lifting procedures, we're going to show you a demonstration what you do but when you do it, make sure you treat the patient and tell them what's going on. you want to crib the object. again, cribing goes underneath the object or the load to make sure it stays off the patient. that's the idea of cribbing. lift the load the height of one
piece of cribbing. you want to lift a little at a time. you'll understand when we actually do this. whenever the object is set down, it never rests on the patient. it rests on the cribbing. here is the i-beam, here is the patient right here. they're going to build it high enough so the i-beam is resting on that cribbing right there because that would take the weight, hopefully take some of the weight off of the patient. so now here is the patient, here is the load right here on the patient, there's cribbing right here, there's a rescuer standing here with this lever. the lever is resting on this fulcrum right here and they're going to lift this up and as they lift it, they are going to build the cribbing underneath the load so that the load will rest back on to the cribbing. so clear this area, let's find something we can use as a fulcrum. very good. let's find a fulcrum, let's find some cribbing and find a lever. so we need a lever that's long,
right. we need a fulcrum that we can rest it on, then we need something we can use as cribbing. don't lift yet. you don't want to lift until you are ready. lift slowly, on 3. 1, 2, 3. . >> the fulcrum is under the cribbing. >> put it back on the patient. get them out. we're going to show you 4 rescue carries. one of the rescue carries, we're actually going to have you do it, it's a blanket drag. something good if you are by yourself and you have to get somebody out, you get a blanket or a sheet or a throw rug. works well on this kind of floor, doesn't work well on carpet. a chair is a similar type carry.
if you put them on a chair, it works much better. works great on stairs. last thing we're going to show you is an improvised blanket stretcher, how to carry somebody long distances. you want to use at least 4 people or 6, however many hands you can get on them. . >> grab that, make sure it's past their head. pull that out but only on the count. >> okay, on the count of 3. 1, 2, 3, roll. >> okay, now while you have this person up, remember, about halfway, roll the person back. now you guys do it. you are going to grab the legs. >> count of 3, 1, 2, 3. take a look at the back again, everything look okay? roll them back down. . >> 1, 2, 3. >> move in close, move in tight.
it's easier. okay, now you want to go that way. okay, you want to go my way. 1, 2, 3. >> okay, why don't you stop. >> 1, 2, 3. >> make sure your back is straight. >> basically when you are using a ladder out there, make sure you keep the ladder 10 feet away from wires. make sure the ladder is secure, that it's on stable ground, that it's even. if it's on a hill, we really don't want you to use it on a hill, but if it's on a hill, make sure it's shimmieed with something stable. make sure it's at the right angle, we suggest 70 degrees. if you stick your hand on a rung, the angle of the ladder is about the right angle there. never let go of the ladder. stand in the center, climb straight up. if you climb on the edges of the rung, the ladder will go
this way. look up so you know where you are going and you can see where you're going to climb. walk vertically. don't step off to the side of the ladder. kind of common sense. make sure you read chapter 7 through the . >> this class is managing a disaster. what happens and how do we fit in? emergency operation plan, everything is going to go through the mayor. you have the office of emergency services, everything is supposed to come together over on turk street. that's where the ham radio base station is going to be. that's where they will have a set up. they will be communicating with all the different emergency
response districts. that's where we fit in. we're going to fit into this emergency response staging thing into nert staging districts. each response district has its own little (inaudible) then the nert groups are broken up into the corresponding emergency response districts and they are located at our fire department, battalion chief stations, basically there's a battalion chief there, he will be like the little commander of that district as far as we're concerned and the fire department's response. going to have the ham radio communication people there, they are going to set up a little base station in that fire station and they are also going to be in communication with the staging area in that district. this is what the big picture looks like, basically it's a little clearer than that, it goes up on the wall, but it's the city laid out in these response districts. it shows you where all the emergency facilities such as
hospitals and police stations and fire stations and schools are. basically, there's a map that corresponds with your neighborhood. you want to get one so you can find out where in your neighborhood to go. once you've taken care of your families, your friends, your pets, your loved ones if you want you can go help out other people in your city. there it is, a place for us to gather as nert members and there's our nert ics area. here is our structure. same kind of set up, sort of our version. command policy section, the planning group, they are up on top. then once things get rolling, you have your operations section, logistics section. here are our objectives on the nert team, figure out if it's big, if it's small, how do we
keep track of what's going on? do we just remember it? are we going to rely on our computers, our pc's? no, we have to write it down the old-fashioned way. address, is there a fire, yes or no, damage, are there people injured, dead, can you get there. where, what, any sort of damage, are there people involved, can you get to it? here is a nert status sheet. basically if you send somebody out, you want to send the members' names, what time they went out, when they came back, what the assignment was, any comments, and if you have an incident number that would be nice. who is the safety person? we don't want to send people out, just hey, go do this. we want to keep track of it. if they don't come back within a couple hours we have to send somebody to find them or at least checkup on them. if we don't know where they
went and who they are, you have chaos. they might be hurt and they're going to stay hurt. we're going to roll on to disaster psychology. what does that mean? when people go through a disaster, their lives are wrecked. i saw this firsthand, i went down to help out with katrina thing in september. it's weird. because you are dealing with people that lost everything and it's kind of hard to imagine that if you haven't done it yourself. basically, you know, she's looking at her curtains here, she probably hand-stitched those things. maybe they have been hanging there the last 5 or 6 years. everything in the house is wrecked, photos, keepsakes, it's a tough thing. and people deal with this kind of stress in different ways. we as disaster workers, we see it all the time. but we have a word we use, professional. we try to be professional
around people that have suffered a loss like this because they don't want us to come -- you don't want to go into somebody's house and be joking and having a good time. it's unprofessional. when you are dealing with somebody who has a loss like this, just think of the word professional. that's what we try to do. this sort of body language here, she's trying to comfort here, do you think she's buying it? not with that body language. she's not really buying it. some people won't. some people will never be the same. like that thing with katrina, some people are really good but you can tell just under the surface that they are a wreck. give them space, try to be professional, try to comfort them if you can, but some people won't let you. and don't take it personal. that's the main thing, just don't take it personal. sometimes people just can't be helped. they are not mad at you, they don't hate you, you are trying to help them. they probably understand that, but they have suffered a terrific loss and some people you can't help. but try.
you got to try anyway. that's kind of why we're here, we want to try. some other feels, disorientation, physical or emotional numbness, loss of trust or abandonment, cranky. i would be. if i had to go shave in the marina medal school, my cat ran away, i'd be pissed. team behavior, be calm. you don't want to be excited and crazed. be systematic, demonstrate by example. if you are calm and cool and under control, people will see you are there to help. if you act like a maniac, they are going to act like a maniac. pails yourself. you are going to reach a point where you had enough. take some time out, take the whole group, have a seat away from whatever you are doing and just take a break. that was part of the things they found in oklahoma, they
blew that thing up and all the disaster service people were sitting there taking a break, you know, they worked 12 hour shifts, 12 on, 12 off, but their break area was right across the street. the whole time they were taking a break, they were sitting there thinking they ought to be helping. so were they really getting a break in no. do something else. think about something else. pace yourself. emphasize teamwork, make sure everybody on the team is aware of the plan and if you are helping somebody, make sure they are aware of the plan. that's important. because some people just, what are you doing, why are you guys here? explain it to them. take a minute and explain it to them and they will help you, usually. it makes your job easier. rotate personnel as needed. people are going to get burned out, get tired. you don't want them to get hurt. take frequent breaks, eat and
drink frequently and talk about what's going on. what's the disaster registry? we talked about this before. at each fire house there's a list of people in the neighborhood around that fire house, in that district, that may have mobility problems, they have special needs. if you guys know anybody that has those, get in touch with us, we can give them the form and basically have them fill it out. what they will do is put the person's name and address in a lock box in the fire house. one of the jobs of the nert volunteers is to go to the fire house, get this lock box, they have the key, get the list of the names and send people out to check on them. for whatever reason, they might still be there. . >> exercise. basically to get you to start thinking how to prioritize the disaster and how you would send teams out to which incident you would handle. so let's make the assumption,
today is saturday, an earthquake, magnitude 7.3 on the richter scale has struck 9.45 am this morning. the quake was on the north heyward fault and lasted 10 seconds. 45 minutes later, the city has widespread damage, fire, police and paramedics are overwhelmed by thousands of calls. nert volunteers are gathering in appropriate staging areas. your objective is to set up a command structure and prioritize the incident. what is the first incident you want to respond to and why? what is the second incident you would respond to, and why? you would continue this process until all the incidents have been addressed. and you have to always remember what's the model of the nert program? come on, everyone, let's go. do the most good for the most amount of people.
those who pick priority 1, 35 people reported missing or injured. what's the goal of the nert program? let's repeat it again. do the most good for the most amount of people. so, thus, what's the second incident you would go to? 9 elderly people. this is what you have to deal with. once you dealt with people, then you would respond to other incidents. what is the mission of the fire department? save lives, protect property. life is much more important than property. all right, let's move on. so we've dealt with the people. once we dealt with the people incidents, they will now do property. so no particular order now. there's no particular order, we're just going to discuss this. a building is fully involved in fire. people have been reported missing. what can you do as nerts, as a
nert team? rope it off, cordon it off. what else? good, runner to the fire department. do you have the tools and skills to extinguish a major fire? no, you don't. notify the erd, evacuate -- assist the fire department if we get there, but don't become a victim. smell of gas. what can you do as nerts? turn off the gas. and what are the 3 situations when you want to shut the gas off? smell the gas, something -- oh, yeah, wheels are spinning and major building collapse. muni -- overhead muni wire, flopping around. what can you did as nerts? always assume all electricity is live and hot. so what can you do as nerts? cordon off the area, tell people to stay back. small fires reported in the rear of a building, what can you do as